HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE: THE BIG BANG THEORY

| November 13, 2016

First suggested in the 1920s, the Big Bang theory has remained one of the most popular astronomical explanations of the origin of the universe. According to this theory, pre-existent universal substances were initially compressed into one high-energy ball of matter that existed over ten billion years ago. Thus, all universal elements including other galaxies developed after the occurrence of the Big Bang. The point of singularity that initiated the Big Bang had infiniteness in the smallness of size, density of matter, and radiation of heat.[1] Cosmological explanations indicate that an instantaneous release of the energy led to the expansive creation of matter, space, and time. Subsequently, this ended up in the formation, modeling, and expansion of these elements to create a limitlessly expanding universe with thousands of galaxies.

The occurrence of the Big Bang was so instantaneous and speedy that the whole universe had been formed within a trillion-trillionth of a second. However, most physicists note that the universe has continued to expand to date. This has made the processes of the Big Bang be grouped into six distinct eras. The first of these is the Planck Era. This covers the time spanning from the initiation of thermal expansion to 10-43 seconds after the expansion. During this period, all the universally operational forces combined into one single force that initiated the expansion. This was a combination of strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces. It was followed by the Grand Unification Era occurring between 10-43 seconds and 10-35 seconds after the initial expansion. What was later referred to as ‘inflation’ occurred during this era. A uniquely powerful force doubled from a previously electroweak force to trigger the release of tremendous amounts of energy and cause limitless expansion. The subsequent era was full of particles and was named the Elementary Particle Era. This occurred between 10-10 seconds and 0.001 seconds. Electron, positron, and other particles filed the expanse of the space that had been created to produce mass energy via matter-antimatter collisions.[2]

The last two stages of the Big Bang present the Era of Nucleosynthesis and the Era of Atoms. The previous one occurred from 0.001 seconds to 3 minutes. This marker the combination of protons and neutrons to give rise to initial atomic nuclei that contained hydrogen, helium, and lithium. No more heat was being released. As a result, cooling continued and more mass resulted from synthesis. From 3 minutes after the occurrence of the Big Bang to 380,000 years, more atomic nuclei were formed. At the end of this era, three-quarters of the universe was made of hydrogen while at least a quarter of it had helium nuclei. The rest were lithium and deuterium nuclei among other atomic nuclei. The Era of Atoms then occurred from 380,000 years – 1 billion years and beyond. It is during this period that transparency was achieved in space and more atomic substances formed to achieve planetary solidity. It also during this period that relational gravitational forces came together to establish universal balance.[3]

Many realistic elements support the possible occurrence of the Big Bang. The first of these is the fact that the universe has continued to expand to date. This is an indication of continued action of the initial release of energy. Another proof is drawn from the existence of cosmic background radiation within microwave frequencies. This occurs in a multidirectional perspective, but only within microwave regions. The universal ratio of helium and hydrogen has also remained consistent with prevailing cosmic temperatures and expansion rates. This couples with evidence against the Steady Theory that indicates that the universe and its galaxies have been constantly changing.[4]

In conclusion, the Big Bang theory explains the formation of the universe from an infinitely tiny, dense, and hot particle. The immeasurable release of this energy caused instantaneous expansion and the formation of matter, space, and time. Though fast, the process took place in six phases namely the Planck Era, Grand Unification Era, Electroweak Era, Elementary Particle Era, Era of Nucleosynthesis, and Era of Atoms. This occurred over ten billion years ago and caused the formation of infinitely expanding thousands of galaxies.

 

Bibliography

Chaffey, Tim. Old Earth Creationism on Trial: The Verdict Is in. Green Forest: Master Books Publishers, 2013.

Kowalski, Dean. The Big Bang Theory and Philosophy: Rock, Paper, Scissors, Aristotle, Locke. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

Singh, Simon. Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe. New York: Harper Perennial Printers Limited, 2015.

Yount, Lisa. Modern Astronomy: Expanding the Universe with Infiniteness. New York: Chelsea House Publishing, 2013.

[1]. Chaffey, Tim. Old Earth Creationism on Trial: The Verdict Is in (Green Forest: Master Books Publishers, 2013), 198.

 

[2]. Kowalski, Dean. The Big Bang Theory and Philosophy: Rock, Paper, Scissors, Aristotle, Locke (New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2012), 72.

 

[3]. Yount, Lisa. Modern Astronomy: Expanding the Universe with Infiniteness (New York: Chelsea House Publishing, 2013), 66.

[4] Singh, Simon. Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe (New York: Harper Perennial Printers Limited, 2015), 110.

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